Klaim ‘Constructive Total Loss (CTL)’ dalam Asuransi Marine Hull

Pada tulisan sebelumnya sudah penulis sampaikan tentang klaim Actual Total Loss (ATL) pada asuransi marine hull dimana pendefinisiannya mengacu pada Marine Insurance Act (MIA) 1906. Lalu apa yang dimaksud dengan klaim Constructive Total Loss (CTL) ?.

Berbeda dengan Actual Total Loss (ATL), dalam wording Institute Time Clauses-Hulls 1.1.95 dicantumkan secara eksplisit tentang definisi Constructive Total Loss (CTL) yaitu pada Pasal 12, terutama ayat 2 yang menyebutkan, “No claim for constructive total loss based upon the cost of recovery and/or repair of the Vessel shall be recoverable hereunder unless such cost would exceed the insured value”. Dengan demikian, klaim atas dasar constructive total loss hanya dapat dibayarkan kepada tertanggung jika biaya atau ongkos pemulihan dan/atau perbaikan kapal melebihi nilai atau harga pertanggungan (yang tercantum dalam schedule polis). Berbeda dengan konsep asuransi kendaraan bermotor yang mengenal kerugian atau kerusakan minimum 75% dari harga sebenarnya, dalam asuransi marine hull tidak dikenal konsep ini.

Penjelasan yang lengkap tentang constructive total loss dapat dibaca dalam Marine Insurance Act (MIA) 1906 Section 60 yang berbunyi : (1) Subject to any express provision in the policy, there is a constructive total loss where the subject-matter insured is reasonably abandoned on account if its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable, or because it could not be preserved from actual total loss without an expenditure which would exceed its value when the expenditure had been incurred. (2) In particular, there is a constructive total loss : (i) Where the assured is deprived of the possession of his ship or goods by a peril insured against, and (a) it is unlikely that he can recover the ship or goods, as the case may be, or (b) the cost of recovering the ship or goods, as the case may be, would exceed their value when recovered; or (ii) In the case of damage to a ship, where she is so damaged by peril insured against that the cost of repairing the damage would exceed the value of the ship when repaired.

Dalam banyak kasus, klaim CTL terjadi pada situasi yang disebutkan dalam sub-section 60(2)(ii) Marine Insurance Act 1906 dimana biaya memperbaiki kapal melebihi nilai kapal yang diasuransikan. Misal, insured value ditetapkan sebesar USD 10,000,000.00, lalu terjadi musibah dimana kapal tenggelam dan harus diangkat ke permukaan dengan biaya sebesar USD 1,000,000.00. Kapal lalu dilakukan perbaikan dengan biaya sebesar USD 9,500,000.00 sehingga total biaya yang dikeluarkan sebesar USD 1,000,000.00 + USD 9,500,000.00 = USD 10,500,000.00. Karena total biaya sudah melebihi insured value maka klaim tersebut dapat dikategorikan sebagai klaim constructive total loss.

Penutup

Mengacu pada Section 60 Marine Insurance Act (MIA) 1906, klaim constructive total loss pada asuransi marine hull dapat terjadi dalam berbagai situasi yaitu  :

  1. Where the subject-matter insured is reasonably abandoned.
  2. Where the insured subject-matter issued cannot be preserved from actual total loss without an expenditure which would exceed its value when the expenditure had been incurred.
  3. Where the assured is deprived of the possession of his ship or goods by a peril insured against, and (a) it is unlikely that he can recover the ship or goods, as the case may be.
  4. (b) Where the cost of recovering the ship or goods, as the case may be, would exceed their value when recovered.
  5. Where the ship is so damaged by a peril insured against and the cost of repairing the damage would exceed the value of the ship when repaired.
  6. Where the cost of repairing the damaged goods and forwarding them to their destination would exceed their value on arrival.

constructive total loss

Share this article :
20
fb-share-icon20

Disclaimer

All content and information on this website is published in good faith and for general information purpose only. We do not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of information on this site or found by following any link on this site. Any action you take upon the information found on this website is strictly at your own risk.

The owner will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.